Guenther Deschner <>

Last Update: 21.07.2001

Well, sorry for the long silence. I just had no time. A lot has happenend meanwhile (TNG 2.6.1, Samba 2.2.1a) and this page really has to be updated...

To do this i decided to switch over to DocBook which seems just perfect to maintain this small piece of documentation. So come back in some weeks, I have to learn sgml first :)

Don't expect to find anything new here...

Please note that this HOWTO is not finished yet and that it applies to highly experimental features of developper code.
Use at your own risk! Feedback and help are welcome.



Cosmetics and some more stuff about ip-aliases on Solaris (thanks to Larry Austin).


There are scripts for Solaris now. Thanks to Sardar Azari. There will be (hopefully) a new section about the clientside configuration later...


After the first edition of this small howto was written, i (surprisingly) received a lot of feedback about it. Well, this made me decide to write much more and to make it more like a real howto. I will try to be less linux-specific and I'm planning to write more about TNG and NT in general.

Unfortunatly my spare-time will be very limited in the next weeks, so every help is welcome ! Expect to find much more in here soon...

Table of Contents:


Very often you wish to have an opportunity to log win2k/NT-boxes onto NT-like Primary Domain Controller (PDC). Samba-Team is working on several code-branches to allow samba to perform as a PDC. Since the PDC- features of the latest stable samba-version (2.0.7) are quite limited (win2k will never log on without several tricks) and the next stable samba-version (2.2) hasn't left its early alpha-status yet, you should use Samba - The Next Generation (TNG). TNG was forked from the main branch in october 2000 and allows the maximum of PDC-features and a sophisticated process-managment. On the other side: TNG is not optimized as a file-server. For the purpose of high-performance file-serving you should use the samba HEAD-branch. HEAD will become one day Samba 3.0, where PDC-features and superior file-performance will once be merged together...

This short overview raises the question: Fine, I'd like to have TNG's PDC-features but HEAD's file-performance. How can I benefit from both? The answer is quite simple: Just start two Samba-Servers on one single machine. This is quite easy, since Unix-like operating systems allow you to have ip-aliases on your network interfaces. Then you just start two Sambas bound to different ip-adresses. TNG will care about the Domain-stuff while HEAD will perform the dirty job of file-serving.

To make visual what we are planning to do, I made this graphic:

This document assumes that you know about unix-networking in general and Samba in particular.

I. Download and install

I wrote a small script that will get the latest sources of both TNG and HEAD, compiles and installs them. To be on the cutting-edge of samba-development you could easily make a cronjob that updates your setup every night (which is in fact a very, very bad idea for production environments, except you don't bother phone calls at six in the morning.)

It can be downloaded from here: dual_samba.tar

This script was initially written for SuSE 7.0/7.1 plattforms, so adapt it yourself if necessary.

Meanwhile there are scripts for other Unixes available:

# script to generate and update a dual samba configuration:
# tng for domain stuff and head for file-performance 
# ### warning: only tested on SuSE 7.0/7.1 !!! ###
# there's a bsd-version (kindly provided by Chris Lee)  
# comments to guenther deschner (

tng_log="$startpwd/tng.$(date +%Y-%m-%d).log"
head_log="$startpwd/head.$(date +%Y-%m-%d).log"

#want start-up-scripts? (only tested with SuSE 7.0 and 7.1!!)

if test -e /etc/SuSE-release; then
   suse=$(grep VERSION /etc/SuSE-release | sed s/[A-Z,=,.,\ ]//g)
   if test $suse -lt 71; then
   echo -e "Hm. Assuming that /sbin/init.d is your init-dir...\n"


#am i root?
test $(id -u) != 0 && echo "Sorry, you're not root..." && exit 0 

#check dirs
for i in $tng_dir $head_dir; do
    test -d $i && echo -e "Ok. Directory $i is there\n" || (echo -e "Creating directory $i\n"; mkdir $i)

#get latest sources, compile and install them

### tng ###

cd $tng_dir
if test -d tng; then
        echo -e "Updating cvs-tree for SAMBA TNG\n"
        cvs -z3 -d co tng 2>&1 | tee $tng_log
        echo -e "Starting cvs-login. Please enter password \"anoncvs\"\n"
        cvs -d login
        cvs -z3 -d co tng 2>&1 | tee $tng_log

echo -e "Start compiling TNG-sources:\n"

cd $tng_dir/tng/source
./configure --prefix="$tng_dst" --with-smbmount --with-profile --with-quotas | tee -a $tng_log
(make 2>&1 || (make clean; make 2>&1)) | tee -a $tng_log 
(make install) 2>&1 | tee -a $tng_log

test -f $tng_dst/private/smbpasswd || (
        echo -e "Creating missing files for TNG\n";
        mkdir $tng_dst/private;
        touch $tng_dst/private/smbpasswd;
        chmod 600 $tng_dst/private/smbpasswd) 2>&1 | tee -a $tng_log

### head ###

cd $head_dir
if test -d samba; then
        echo -e "Updating cvs-tree for SAMBA HEAD\n"
        cvs -z5 -d co samba 2>&1 | tee $head_log
        echo -e "Starting cvs-login. Please enter password \"cvs\"\n"
        cvs -d login
        cvs -z5 -d co samba 2>&1 | tee $head_log

echo -e "Start compiling HEAD-sources:\n"

cd $head_dir/samba/source
./configure --prefix="$head_dst" --with-smbmount --with-profile --with-quotas 2>&1 | tee -a $head_log
(make 2>&1 || (make clean; make 2>&1)) | tee -a $head_log
(make install) 2>&1 | tee -a $head_log

test -f $head_dst/private/smbpasswd || (
        echo -e "Creating missing files for HEAD\n";
        mkdir $head_dst/private;
        touch $head_dst/private/smbpasswd; 
        chmod 600 $head_dst/private/smbpasswd) 2>&1 | tee -a $head_log

### startup scripts ###

if test $STARTUP = "YES"; then

echo -e "Copying startup-scripts\n"

# tng
test -x $init_dir/$init_tng || (
        echo -e "Creating init-script for TNG\n";
        cp $startpwd/$init_tng $init_dir/;
        chmod 755 $init_dir/$init_tng) 2>&1 | tee -a $tng_log

grep "SMB_TNG" /etc/rc.config || (
        echo -e "Creating rc.config-entry for TNG\n";
        echo -e "#\n#Start Samba TNG? (\"yes\" or \"no\")\n#\nSTART_SMB_TNG=\"yes\"" >> /etc/rc.config) 2>&1 | tee -a $tng_log

# head
test -x $init_dir/$init_head || (
        echo -e "Creating init-script for HEAD\n";
        cp $startpwd/$init_head $init_dir/;
        chmod 755 $init_dir/$init_head) 2>&1 | tee -a $head_log

grep "SMB_HEAD" /etc/rc.config || (
        echo -e "Creating rc.config-entry for HEAD\n";
        echo -e "#\n#Starting Samba HEAD? (\"yes\" or \"no\")\n#\nSTART_SMB_HEAD=\"yes\"" >> /etc/rc.config) 2>&1 | tee -a $head_log

# both
echo -e "Creating runlevel-links and rc-shortcuts\n"
for i in $init_tng $init_head; do
        if test $suse -lt 71; then
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc2.d/S20$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc2.d/K20$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc3.d/S20$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc3.d/K20$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc3.d/S10$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc3.d/K14$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc5.d/S10$i
                ln -sf ../$i $init_dir/rc5.d/K14$i
        ln -sf $init_dir/$i /usr/sbin/rc$i

sed s/"START_SMB=\"yes\""/"START_SMB=\"no\""/gI /etc/rc.config > /tmp/rc.config.tmp
mv /tmp/rc.config.tmp /etc/rc.config

echo -e "Don't forget to shutdown eventually running sambas with something like \"rcsmb stop\".\n" 


Download and untar it with:

tar xvf dual_samba.tar

Execute the script (on older machines you maybe get some coffee...).

Now the sources will be installed under /usr/src/packages/SOURCES/samba-tng and /usr/src/packages/SOURCES/samba-head. The binaries are now at /usr/local/samba-head and /usr/local/samba-tng The script installs init.d-scripts called samba-tng and samba-head.

Now that we have the latest code compiled and installed, there's still a good job of configuration we have to do:

II. Server-Configuration (Basics):


In this document we assume that you have a linux-machine with one ip-address for your internal network eth0. Wherever I can, i will try to provide information for other Unixes.

In our example:

We call our domain "office" and give

Generally it would be a very good idea to add your netbios-names into your DNS. At least add entries into your /etc/hosts. Ask you local unix-guru if you're not familiar with DNS. Expect heavy problems without a working name-resolution.

1. Create an alias for your NIC

Linux: Now we need an alias on our network-card. On Linux-platforms the following should make it (tested with 2.2 and 2.4 kernels):

ifconfig eth0:0 broadcast netmask up

BSD: If you find yourself on a BSD-platform, you'll need to find out the id of your interface/driver, something like fxp0 for a Intel EtherExpress Pro 100. Others are dc0, el0, etc. So please replace [eth] with the correct id.

ifconfig [eth]0 alias broadcast netmask

Solaris: (thanks to Sardar Azari and Larry Austin)

The setup varies for different versions, plattforms and hardware.

First, find out your interface with:

ifconfig -a   

Your output could look like this:

lo0: flags=849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 8232 inet netmask ff000000
le0: flags=863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet \ 
netmask ffffff00 broadcast ether 7:76:76:e1:20

In this case, your interface name is "le0". In the next examples we use "hme0".

2. Create two smb.confs

3. Bring up the beasts

Now start your Sambas with:

rcsamba-tng start
rcsamba-head start

Please note that the ifconfig-alias is part of the HEAD-startup-script, so that you have to change the ip-alias there! The "default"-init.d-script assumes that you use as well...

4. Create machine-account for your HEAD

You should now create a unix-group for all the machines you're going to integrate into your domain. Personally I prefer the group-name "machines". Take whatever you like. On Linux type:

groupadd machines
useradd -g machines -s /bin/false SAMBA-HEAD$

5. Create Trust-Account on your TNG for HEAD

/usr/local/samba-tng/bin/samedit -S . -U root
createuser SAMBA-HEAD$

6. Let HEAD join your domain, maintained by TNG

/usr/local/samba-head/bin/smbpasswd -j office

7. Create users on your TNG and test them

Should I point you to the fact, that you always have to create your users first as local unix-users, before you ever can add or use them as samba-users?

/usr/local/samba-tng/bin/samedit -S . -U root
createuser testuser -p password

Finally test your sample-user on TNG and on HEAD

/usr/local/samba-tng/bin/samedit -S . -U root
ntlogin office\testuser password

For some odd reason, you might get a negative result. If the second test works, you can ignore it. #fixme!

/usr/local/samba-head/bin/smbclient //samba-head/sample-share -U testuser

If you get a "smb>"-prompt you're done! (well almost...)

Voila. Enjoy HEAD's high-performance file-serving with TNG's PDC-features !

Now you can start to create your shares, tune your configuration, make it a safe setup (!), configure your clients, etc.

III. Server-Configuration (PDC-features):

Now we have the basics done for our dual-samba, it's time to have a closer look on TNG's PDC-features:

1. Logon-scripts

Usually, logon-scripts consist of ordinary dos-batch-commands, most often used to map network-drives, adjust the time and maybe start some programs.

Please make sure that you have

logon script = %U.bat
time server = yes

in TNG's [global]-section of smb.conf.

The *.bat-file must have a dos-like carriage return / line feed in each line. Either create it from a dos-box or use tools like unix2dos. Here's an example (taken from David Bannon's 2.2-PDC-Howto):

net time \\samba-tng /set /yes
@echo off
if %OS%.==Windows_NT. goto WinNT
net use k: \\samba-head\test-share
net use p: \\samba-head\homes
start /m winpopup
goto end
net use k: \\samba-head\test-share /persistent:no
net use p: \\samba-head\homes /persistent:no


Save this file as testuser.bat in //samba-tng/netlogon. To be on the safer side, make it read-only (!) for testuser.

2. Profiles

To allow TNG to automatically create and store your users profiles (and to create the necessary directories), do:

chmod 1700 /whereever/your/profile/path/is

3. Policies

Policies do work. Just do it like David Bannon described it in his PDC-FAQ. The two approaches:

4. "User Manager" / "Server Manager"

They do work in read-mode. AFAIK write-access is planned. The tools come with the NEXUS-package.

5. User-/Group-Mapping UNIX/NT

TNG provides several mappings of UNIX-Users/Groups to NT-Users/Groups:

Create the necessary files with:

cd /usr/local/samba-tng/private/
chmod 600

Inform TNG's smb.conf about the .map-files:

# Mapping of Unix users/groups to NT users/groups
# These files take the form unix_group="NT group"
domain user map = /usr/local/samba-tng/private/
domain group map = /usr/local/samba-tng/private/

Here are some examples:

IV. Client-Configuration - soon...


To be written...


1. Is there a risk to install TNG/HEAD on a platform where I usually run 2.0.7 ?

In general it is not a very good idea. Although we pointed our CVS-Sambas to write their files into separate folders. At least HEAD copies (on linux) the smbmount-binaries over 2.0.7's (/sbin/mount.smbfs). There is a good chance that other problems occur. Feedback welcome!

2. I'm not running Linux, but BSD or Solaris. How do I get ip-alias at boot-time?

3. Is it working with other versions of Samba as well?

Sure. You can mix all Samba-Versions, e.g. use 2.2 as PDC and the stable 2.0.7-release as File-Server. In theory, you can even have more than two samba servers on a single machine. This would make sense if you have a lab and want to test the different versions.


Thanks to Thomas Winkler <> who brought up and explained this concept on the SuSE-Linux-Mailinglist.

Many usefull hints came from Chris Lee <> (FreeBSD), Oleg Grodzevich <> (FreeBSD, etc.), Stephan Lauffer <>, Sardar Azari <> and Larry Austin <> (both Solaris).


And of course the Mailing-lists are a great source of information:

*** Even if there are people who sucessfully run a configuration like this, be aware and keep in mind, that there is always a risk using alpha/beta-code in production environments! So don't blame me! ***